By Mick Spillane
As Election Day approaches, we have forgotten that the inventor of Democracy can be attributed to Cleisthenes. Perhaps that is a Promethean view of history. However, what Cleisthenes achieved should not be forgotten: a theory of popular government.
From the days of Cleisthenes, Democracy has enjoyed a continuous, if often tenuous, history in Western civilization. The political experience of Athens has never been lost, until now, perhaps. Even if the Athenian political experience was recorded in texts that for quite extraneous reasons have made sustained claims upon the attention of Western society.
Democracy, as we know it today, is a form of government in which no restriction is placed upon the governing body. That is, the governing body is identical with the “people.” Democracy is the rule of people. Therefore, if Democracy means the rule of people as a whole, how do we realize it? How do we realize it come Election Day? We are both numerous and diverse, where does the individual come into play? How do we each have our Justice and Equality?
Then the question inevitably is not “whether” but how the government is shaping the tangible and morally decisive setting of our common lives. It is a task to face and take up the burden of modernism, which has despaired of, the obligations of Justice and Equality.
As a society, we need to look into the political arrangements; obviously, according to our different political philosophies. Liberty and Equality are properties, as well as Happiness. What, as a society, requires us to be equal? As individuals, as groups—specifically, racial, gender, social classes, opportunities, et cetera.
The philosopher Moses Hess, the “father of German Communism” (he was also a Spinozist, Hegelian, Feurerbachian, a Marxist, a combination of them all). Hess would be asking if we will soon find ourselves in a society in which moral sensibility flourishes? Will a conflict between religion and morality be an even larger part of our lives? The two can only be avoided by a division of labor in society. Religion has no business in politics or with concerns of the state. Religion is a private matter—an affair of the individual who faces the immensities of the world.
Individuality is a crude, metaphysical fact. Consequently, how do we create a society filled with benevolence, sympathy, and compassion? The categorical imperative says, “Act universally.” This is the law that human reason gives to itself. …
*On that note, per the current issue of Voter I.D. and Election Fraud, there is no credible evidence or documentation of individuals voting multiple times, impersonating someone, or voting despite being ineligible; moreover, it is irrational to think this is a widespread epidemic.
Yet the groups such as Voter Integrity Project; Tea Party; Hans von Spakovsy, a republican lawyer from the Bush administration, now with the conservative Heritage Foundation; Judicial Watch; and the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). These groups like to create instances of fraudulent voting, which often turn out to be the result of common clerical errors, incomplete information, or faulty assumptions. Most allegations of voter fraud disappear when more rigorous analysis is conducted. Voter fraud is about as common as dying from Morgellons.